Opius nympha Fischer, 1968

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Opius nympha Fischer, 1968: 34–35, 40–41 (key), 111–113 (description). Holotype female in CNC (examined).
Opius nympha: Fischer 1971: 92 (catalog); Wharton and Norrbom 2013: 16-19, 51-54 (key, diagnosis, distribution, hosts).
Opius (Thoracosema) nympha: Fischer 1977: 409–410, 436–437 (key, redescription); Yu et al. 2005, 2012 (electronic catalogs).
I have examined an additional six specimens from Costa Rica and one from Guatemala (all USNM, all reared from Campiglossa) that appear to represent one or more species. They differ slightly from O. nympha in having an extensively rugose propodeum and very slightly longer ovipositor, but because of the sculptured propodeum they would not be placed in the same subgenus as O. nympha in the classification of Fischer (1972, 1977). The morphological variation in the material at hand thus suggests that Opius nympha is likely to be just one of several closely related species specializing on Campiglossa. Determining whether other members of this group are described or undescribed will require extensive comparisons across several large subgenera.
Diagnosis and Relationships
Fischer (1968, 1977) provides a detailed description and keys for this species, all in German. The above abbreviated description is intended primarily to highlight features useful for separating O. nympha from the other species of Opius s. l. that attack non-frugivorous Tephritidae. This species is readily distinguished from members of the baderae, godfrayi, and pipitae species groups by the distinctly lower position of 2CUb arising from the distal side of the 1st subdiscal cell. From the remaining species of Opius known to attack these hosts, O. nympha can be differentiated by the absence of a mesoscutal midpit, the presence of a weakly sculptured precoxal sulcus, and the lack of rugose or carinate sculpture medially on the propodeum.

Fischer (1977) placed O. nympha in the subgenus Thoracosema Fischer, characterized by reduced propodeal sculpture. The precoxal sulcus is very weakly sculptured in a few of the specimens, and these would likely run instead to Phaedrotoma in Fischer (1977). Opius nympha also superficially resembles species in the Old World genus Psyttalia Walker, but differs in such characteristics as the lack of propodeal carinae medially and the presence of a hind wing m-cu in addition to lacking a short T2.

Habitus (Figs 1-3). Temple narrow (Fig. 4), eye about 2.0–2.5 x longer than temple in both dorsal and lateral view . Clypeus (Figs 5, 8) somewhat crescentic, ventral margin weakly protruding in lateral view, sharp, truncate medially, curving ventrally near lateral margins; labrum broadly exposed (Figs 5, 8). Malar space (Fig. 5) about as long as basal width of mandible, malar sulcus complete, deeply incised throughout. Occipital carina widely absent dorsally, the gap greater than distance between eyes in dorsal view, carina present, well developed laterally, widely separated from hypostomal carina at base of mandible (Fig. 6). Antenna with 20–21 (female) and 22–24 (male) flagellomeres (Fig. 10). Pronotum dorsally narrow, with median pit; laterally without vertical carina adjacent median vertical groove. Mesoscutum (Figs 4, 8, 9) with deep, vertical anterior declivity; notaulus a short, deep impression barely extending posteriorly beyond anterior declivity, continuing to posterior margin of mesoscutum only as a narrow band of setae, disc of mesoscutum otherwise bare, without midpit posteriorly; supramarginal carina well-developed (Figs 8, 9). Precoxal sulcus short, not extending to anterior or posterior margins of mesopleuron, nearly always (95%) crenulate (Figs 11, 12). Propodeum largely smooth, polished, with some rugulose sculpture medially adjacent posterior margin; setose laterally (Figs 11, 12). Hind tibia without basal carina. Fore wing (Figs 1, 2, 13) with stigma wedge-shaped, gradually merging with R1 distally, r arising from basal 0.25; 3RSa 1.6–1.95 (female) and 1.5–1.85 (male) x longer than 2RS; m-cu distinctly postfurcal; 2CUb arising distinctly below middle of distal margin of 1st subdiscal cell (Fig. 13). Hind wing RS absent; m-cu present, extending 0.3–0.5 distance to wing margin as a crease, usually weakly pigmented basally. T1 (Figs 11, 12, 14) with laterope but without dorsope; dorsal carinae distinct to level of spiracle, nearly absent posteriorly, not reaching posterior margin, rugulose to nearly smooth between carinae. T2 and following without sculpture. Ovipositor (total length) 1.4 x longer than mesosoma; ovipositor sheath 0.9 x length of mesosoma. Color (Figs 1-7): Head yellow, usually with faint infumate spots around dark ocellar triangle and posteriorad middle of eye; meso- and metasoma dark brown with T2+3, small spot surrounding propodeal spiracle, and some to all of pronotum laterally yellow; male often with yellow markings on mesopleuron, sometimes extensively; wings hyaline.
1.Opius nympha habitus
2.Opius nympha habitus
3. Opius nympha habitus dor...
4. Opius nympha head and me...
5. Opius nympha head latera...
6. Opius nympha head obliqu...
7.Opius nympha face
8. Opius nympha mesoscutum...
9. Opius nympha mesoscutum...
10.Opius nympha
11. Opius nympha mesosoma la...
12. Opius nympha mesosoma lat...
13.Opius nympha wings
14. Opius nympha metasoma do...
Type locality: Mexico, Mexico, Toluca. Additionally, specimens have been reared from plants collected in D. F. and nearby in Morelos.
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
All of the specimens were reared from species of the tephritid genus Campiglossa (currently treated as a senior synonym of Paroxyna , the genus name indicated on the labels of reared specimens). The vast majority of the specimens were reared from flower heads, but two of the specimens were from stems containing flies of this genus. Wasps and flies were reared from four species of Asteraceae, representing three or four closely related genera [ Senecio sanguisorbae (DC.) C. Jeffrey is also known as Packera sanguisorbae (DC.) C. Jeffrey]. Plant hosts are: flowers of Senecio sanguisorbae, Roldana lineolata (DC.) H. Rob. & Brettell, and Senecio iodanthus Greenm.; stems of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Kunth) H. Rob. & Brettell.

One of the samples yielded 28 flies and 5 braconids (15% parasitism by O. nympha).


There are no specimens currently determined for this OTU, or those specimens determined for this OTU are not yet mappable.

This page was assembled largely by Bob Wharton and Andrew Ly. It is part of a revision of New World, mostly neotropical, opiines reared from non-frugivorous Tephritidae conducted by Wharton and Norrbom (2013). We are particularly grateful to Danielle Restuccia, Patricia Mullins, Trent Hawkins, Lauren Ward, and Gabriella Vasquez, who did all of the imaging and especially Danielle for preparing the plates. Paul Marsh initially made much of this material available to the senior author. Matt Yoder and Istvan Miko provided guidance on databasing issues associated with our use of mx and HAO respectively. We thank David Wahl (AEIC), Norm Penny and Bob Zuparko (CAS), Andrew Bennett and Henri Goulet (CNC), Max Fischer and Dominique Zimmermann (NHMW), and Paul Marsh and Robert Kula (Systematic Research Laboratory, USDA; USNM) for facilitating loans and general assistance associated with examination of holotypes and other material in their care. This work was supported largely by NSF DEB 0949027, with REU supplement 1313933 (to Wharton) and partly by NSF/PEET DEB 0328922 (also to Wharton). Page last updated January, 2014.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers DEB 0949027 and DEB 0328922 with REU supplement 1313933.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.