Sialocara Townes, 1970

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Sialocara Townes, 1970. Type species: Sialocara cerasinum Townes, 1970. Monobasic and original designation.
Only one species has been described as of 2010:
Sialocara cerasinum Townes, 1970

The type species was described from two female specimens in the American Entomological Institute that were collected in Nova Teutonia by Fritz Plaumann (Townes 1970). I have seen one male specimen in the Canadian National Collection (CNC); the above description is based largely on this specimen, in comparison with Townes (1970) and some additional comments made by Gauld (1997).

Diagnosis and Relationships
Defined primarily by the combination of an apical pair of tubercles on the clypeus, greatly reduced occipital carina, and absence of a subapical notch on the ovipositor. The generic name refers to the swollen temples. Members of this genus belong to the group of perilissines with a smaller, more basally displaced glymma, with the dorsal tendon attachment within a distinct basal median pit. Sialocara most closely resembles Xiomara due to similarities in reduction of the occipital carina, but the clypeus of Sialocara is distinctive. Gauld (1997) also noted that Sialocara is more robust, with a more elevated T1, and the notauli are not developed as in Xiomara.
Clypeus with ventral margin strongly angled outwardly from face and bearing a median pair of tubercles (Fig. 1); epistomal sulcus distinct. Malar space distinct, nearly as long as basal width of mandible. Mandible with ventral tooth distinctly longer than dorsal tooth. Ocelli small, lateral ocellus distinctly shorter than distance between ocellus and eye. Maxillary palp slightly shorter than head height; female antennae about as long as body or slightly longer; tyloid not visible on CNC specimen. Occipital carina present as a weak vestige mid-dorsally, absent laterally, hypostomal carina therefore not joining occipital carina ventrally. Dorsal end of epicnemial carina distant from anterior margin of mesopleuron; notaulus very weakly indicated, not sharply impressed; pleural carina complete, well-developed; propodeal carinae poorly developed, represented only by well-developed median longitudinal carinae apically connected to short spurs representing posterior transverse carinae (Fig. 5). Posterior hind tibial spur slender; tarsal claws simple, not pectinate. Fore wing areolet present, broad; stigma relatively slender, Rs+2r arising slightly basad midpoint (Fig. 2). Hind wing with first abscissa of CU1 slightly longer than 1cu-a; 10 hamuli in CNC specimen. T1 not long and slender, distinctly broadening posteriorly, dorsal carinae strongly elevated basally, weakening posteriorly, converging but not meeting at level of spiracles (Fig. 4); dorsal carinae basally defining relatively deep, distinct basal depression at dorsal tendon attachment; dorsal-lateral carina extending from spiracle to apex of T1; glymma small, shallow. T2 thyridium not evident. Ovipositor straight, very slender over apical 0.5 and without a subapical notch.
1. Sialocara face in anteri...
2. Sialocara wing in latera...
3. Sialocara habitus in lat...
4. Sialocara petiole in lat...
5. Sialocara propodeum in p...
6. Sialocara antenna showin...
7. Sialocara antenna showin...
The only known species occurs in southern Brazil.
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
The biology is unknown.

There are no specimens currently determined for this OTU, or those specimens determined for this OTU are not yet mappable.

This page was assembled by Bob Wharton as part of a larger collaborative effort on the genera of Ctenopelmatinae. This work would not have been possible without the groundwork provided by Ian Gauld’s study of the Australian and Costa Rican faunas, and we are particularly grateful for his assistance in many aspects of this study. We also thank David Wahl for useful feedback throughout our study and to Gavin Broad for exchange of information on Perilissini. Matt Yoder provided considerable assistance with databasing issues, and our use of PURLs ( in this regard follows the example of their use in publications by Norm Johnson. Danielle Restuccia, Caitlin Nessner, and Cheryl Hyde graciously assisted with imaging, formatting, and literature retrieval. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation’s PEET program under Grant No. DEB 0328922 and associated REU supplement No. 0923134. Page last updated November, 2013.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DEB 0328922 with REU supplement 0923134.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.