Opius godfrayi Wharton, 2013

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Opius godfrayi Wharton, 2013 ZooKeys 349: 16-18, 44-47.
This species is known only from males. The color pattern on the mesoscutum is remarkably variable. On the head, the broad band on the frons extending through the ocellar field and half way down the occiput is only slightly variable, with the band narrowed on the vertex in one specimen and extending variously to or between the antennae. The propodeum shows more evidence of sculpture in this species than other species of either the baderae or the godfrayi species groups, but is unusually variable in extent. The propodeum is largely smooth and polished even in the most heavily sculptured specimen, where rugulose lines separate the large, median polished area from a narrower lateral polished area.

Holotype: Male, deposited in UNAM.

Diagnosis and Relationships
Of those opiines in which the occipital and hypostomal carinae are united before reaching the mandible (the Opius godfrayi species group: Fig. 1), this species is most readily characterized by the relatively concealed labrum, with only a small portion exposed between the ventral margin of the clypeus and the dorsal margin of the mandibles (Fig. 2). Opius godfrayi also has a darker mesopleuron than both O. marshi and O. nablus, the only other members of this species group known to attach Tephritidae. Opius godfrayi could key to Opius (Pendopius) vinoanus Fischer in Fischer (1977, 1983), but the latter has a darker mesoscutum and a sculptured propodeum.

Unlike most other Opiinae, the occipital and hypostomal carinae meet well above the base of the mandible in members of the godfrayi species group, continuing to the mandible as a single, flange-like ridge. They would thus key to Apodesmia Foerster in Li et al. (2013), though differing notably from the type species of Apodesmia in the absence of a midpit on the mesoscutum and absence of a sculptured precoxal sulcus, among other features. Some members of the godfrayi species group will key to Opius (Pendopius Fischer) in the subgeneric keys of Fischer (1972, 1999), but differ from the type species of Pendopius in lacking a basal tooth or lobe on the mandible. Others will key to Opiothorax Fischer, the type species of which similarly has a basal lobe on the mandible.

While the fusion of the occipital and hypostomal carina ventrally in mambers of the godfrayi species group suggests a relationship to Apodesmia, sculptural characteristics of the mesosoma (especially notauli, pronotum, precoxal sulcus, and propodeum) and metasoma (T1) as well as the position of fore wing 2CUb suggest a closer relationship to members of the baderae species group.

1. Opius godfrayi showing j...
2. Opius godfrayi showing w...
Habitus (Figs 1-2). Eyes in dorsal view (Fig. 3) slightly bulging beyond temples, temples not or only very weakly receding. Clypeus (Figs 6-7) 1.6–1.75 x wider than high, weakly punctate throughout; hemispherical or nearly so with epistomal sulcus even rounded; nearly flat in profile, very weakly protruding ventrally; ventral margin very weakly convex, nearly truncate in anterior view with mandibles weakly deflected, exposing very small portion of labrum (Fig. 7). Antenna with 41–43 flagellomeres. Malar sulcus (Fig. 4) distinctly impressed throughout, deeper near eye. Mesosoma (Figs 3, 8, 9) 1.3–1.4 x longer than high. Pronotum laterally crenulate along most or all of posterior side of distinctly elevated vertical carina, sculpture weaker, occasionally evanescent medially; carina extending full length of sclerite in lateral view. Notaulus (Fig. 3) comma-shaped: a short, curved groove extending posteriorly from a rounded pit, deep anteriorly, increasingly shallow posteriorly, not margined anteriorly by carinae. Setae scattered along traces of notaulus very short and widely spaced, mostly absent over posterior 0.5 of mesoscutum. Metapleuron with median pit adjacent anterior margin not directly connected to dorsal pit at posterior margin by a sulcus; ventral margin without well-developed spine anteriorly, at most with ventral carina weakly, unobtrusively expanded anteriorly. Propodeum (Fig. 9) with rugulose area mesal-ventrally of spiracle and weakly punctate to rugulose anteriorad ends of short but distinct lateral-median carinae, otherwise mostly smooth and polished. Fore wing (Fig. 11) with 3RSa 1.45–1.65 x longer than sinuate to strongly sinuate 2RS; (RS+M)a usually weakly sinuate, rarely strongly so. T1 (Figs 9-10) 1.9–2.1 x wider at apex than at base, 0.9–1.05 x as long as apical width; smooth, unsculptured basally, striate to strigose over weakly elevated apical 0.6–0.7, more finely and irregularly sculptured apical-laterally; dorsal carina distinct basally, extending to apex but largely obscured by sculpture posteriorly, indicated only as lateral margin of weakly elevated median area. Color (Figs 1-12): Head mostly yellow, including face, broad orbital band extending from level of antenna through upper gena; lower orbit, lower gena, malar space, clypeus, and mouthparts (except apical teeth of mandible) whitish; frons medially, continuing as a broad band through ocellar field, adjacent portion of vertex, and dorsal half of occiput dark brown to black. Mesosoma black to dark red-brown except yellow as follows: propleuron, pronotum dorsally, anterior polished band of pronotum laterally, much of mesoscutum, at least lateral margin of scutellar triangle and posterior polished band, a pair of spots on either side of metanotal midline and entire posterior margin of metanotum, subalar elevation, somewhat rectangular spot on mesopleuron immediately dorsad mid coxa, ventral midline of mesothorax, and at least ventral part of metapleuron; scutellum medially, at least part of axilla, scuto-scutellar sulcus, and metapleuron dorsally usually light brown, rarely entirely yellow; mesoscutum variable: from mostly yellow with narrow dark brown to black streak along posterior-lateral margin extending from tegula to axilla and faintly infumate medially (Fig. 58) to much darker with three large dark markings anterior-medially and posterior-laterally (about as in Fig. 45); tegula and basal wing sclerite white. T1 black; T2 with median 0.6-0.7 black, lateral margin including spiracle pale yellow; T3-T6 transversely banded black anteriorly, brown medially, white to hyaline posteriorly, median white band usually visible along anterior margin; T7 mostly white, usually weakly spotted with brown medially. Fore and mid tibiae and femora pale yellow; hind femur with pale brown subapical spot on anterior and posterior face, otherwise pale yellow; hind tibia brown with basal 0.2 dark brown. Body length 3.6–4.2 mm; wing length 4.25–4.65 mm; mesosoma length 1.35–1.5 mm.
1. Opius godfrayi habit...
2. Opius godfrayi hab...
3. Opius godfrayi head ...
4. Opius godfrayi h...
5. Opius godfrayi showing o...
6.Opius godfrayi face
7.Opius godfrayi face
8. Opius godfrayi head and ...
9. Opius godfrayi propodeum...
10. Opius godfrayi metasoma ...
11.Opius godfrayi wings
12. Opius godfrayi metasoma ...
Type locality: Mexico, Morelos, Lago de Zempoala.
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
All members of the type series were reared from puparia of Eutreta christophe that were reared from stem galls of Dahlia imperialis. Three flies emerged from this sample, resulting in 70% parasitism by Opius godfrayi. Three other opiine species were reared from flower heads of this plant at the same locality. Details are given under the biology section of the Opius danielsae page.

There are no specimens currently determined for this OTU, or those specimens determined for this OTU are not yet mappable.

Label data
Holotype labels:

MEXICO: Morelos
Lago de Zempoala
A. L. Norrbom, # 50

Second label:
reared ex. stem gall
Dahlia imperialis
Roezl. (91M16A)

Third label:
reared ex. puparium
Eutreta christophe

This page was assembled largely by Bob Wharton and Andrew Ly. It is part of a revision of New World, mostly neotropical, opiines reared from non-frugivorous Tephritidae conducted by Wharton and Norrbom (2013). We are particularly grateful to Danielle Restuccia, Patricia Mullins, Trent Hawkins, Lauren Ward, and Gabriella Vasquez, who did all of the imaging and especially Danielle for preparing the plates. Paul Marsh initially made much of this material available to the senior author. Matt Yoder and Istvan Miko provided guidance on databasing issues associated with our use of mx and HAO respectively. We thank David Wahl (AEIC), Norm Penny and Bob Zuparko (CAS), Andrew Bennett and Henri Goulet (CNC), Max Fischer and Dominique Zimmermann (NHMW), and Paul Marsh and Robert Kula (Systematic Research Laboratory, USDA; USNM) for facilitating loans and general assistance associated with examination of holotypes and other material in their care. This work was supported largely by NSF DEB 0949027, with REU supplement 1313933 (to Wharton) and partly by NSF/PEET DEB 0328922 (also to Wharton). Page last updated January, 2014.

This material is based upon work at Texas A&M University supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers DEB 0949027 and DEB 0328922 with REU supplement 1313933. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.