Otlophorus Foerster, 1868

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Otlophorus Foerster, 1869: 202. Type species: Tryphon vepretorum Gravenhorst, 1829. Subsequent designation by Viereck (1914: 108), selected from among several species first included by Thomson (1895: 2026).

Neales Foerster, 1869: 204. Type species: Tryphon vepretorum Gravenhorst, 1829. Subsequent inclusion by Kriechbaumer (1897: 169). Monobasic. Isogenotypic with Otlophorus as noted by Viereck (1914: 98), who gives credit to Pfankuch (1906).

Dialges Foerster, 1869: 206. Type species: Tryphon vepretorum Gravenhorst, 1829. Subsequent inclusion by Kriechbaumer (1897: 169). Monobasic. Synonymized by Perkins (1962: 417).

Aeolometis Foerster, 1869: 207. Type species: Scolobates italicus Gravenhorst, 1829. Subsequent inclusion by Thomson, 1892: 1870. Monobasic. Synonymized by Townes et al. (1965: 253).

Tachyporthus Foerster, 1869: 210. Type species: Scolobates italicus Gravenhorst, 1829. Included by Kriechbaumer, 1901: 95. Monobasic. Synonymized under Aeolometis by Viereck (1914: 142).

Holmgrenia Foerster, 1869: 213. Type species: Holmgrenia lanceolata Davis. Designated by Viereck (1914: 71) from among several species first included by Davis (1898: 294). Synonymized by Townes et al. (1965: 253).

Aelometis Thomson, 1894: 2034. Unjustified emendation.

Otlophorinus Hincks, 1944: 35. Type species: Mesoleius pulverulentus Holmgren. Original designation.

The following valid species were included by Yu et al. (2012):

Otlophorus anceps (Holmgren, 1857)
Otlophorus carbonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Otlophorus congruens (Holmgren, 1858)
Otlophorus ephippiger (Holmgren, 1876)
Otlophorus exareolator Aubert, 2007
_Otlophorus fissusv (Provancher, 1879)
Otlophorus hypomelas (Thomson, 1894)
Otlophorus inflammator Aubert, 1970
Otlophorus italicus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Otlophorus lanceolatus (Davis, 1897)
Otlophorus melanocarus (Thomson, 1894)
Otlophorus minutus (Rudow, 1881)
Otlophorus nervellator Aubert, 2007
Otlophorus nigricoxator Aubert, 2007
Otlophorus nigritarsus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Otlophorus pictus (Pfankuch, 1906)
Otlophorus pulverulentus (Holmgren, 1857)
Otlophorus rufogibbosus (Kriechbaumer, 1897)
Otlophorus senilis (Holmgren, 1876)
Otlophorus smitsvanburgsti (Teunissen, 1945)
Otlophorus vepretorum (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Otlophorus vibei Jussila, 2006

Diagnosis and Relationships
According to Townes (1970), the species of Otlophorus tend to merge with some of those in Protarchus, Mesoleius, Dentimachus, and Alcochera. However, those without a fore wing areolet would also be difficult to separate from Campodorus.
Most Otlophorus can be identified by the combination of sculptural details (including presence of thyridium) of T1 and T2, well-developed propodeal carinae, presence of fore wing areolet, and long tibial spurs. Townes (1970) also states that in the female the apical tergites are longer than in most other genera. I agree with Townes (1970) that the genus is heterogeneous. Its monophyly is therefore questionable.
Frons without median horn or elevated carina. Clypeus (Figs 2, 3) variable: generally wide; ventral margin blunt and more or less evenly convex in some species (Fig. 2), strongly bulging subapically, with rounded bulge interrupting medially the otherwise sharp apical margin (Fig. 3); epistomal sulcus distinct, sometimes sharply setting off face from bulging (in profile) clypeus. Malar space equal to or shorter than half basal width of mandible, very short in some individuals. Mandible (Figs 2, 3) curved, often gradually narrowing from base to apex; ventral tooth varying from slightly to distinctly longer than dorsal tooth. Inner eye margins parallel to weakly converging ventrally. Ocelli small in material examined, with maximum diameter of lateral ocellus distinctly shorter than distance between ocellus and eye. Antennae equal to or longer than body; first flagellomere long and slender, about twice longer than second (Fig. 1). Hypostomal carina joining occipital carina above base of mandible; occipital carina complete. Epomia absent. Dorsal end of epicnemial carina usually extending to anterior margin of mesopleuron or nearly so; mesopleuron ventrally mat to polished or nearly so, coarsely punctate. Notaulus varying from absent/weak to sharply impressed on anterior declivity, and varying from absent/weak on disk to distinct at least to level of tegula. Pleural carina distinct, well developed in the material available for study; propodeum with lateral longitudinal carina well developed between posterior margin and spiracle, sometimes weak to absent anteriorly; petiolar area with well-elevated ridges in form of a broad, wide semicircle as in Campodorus and many other mesoleiines, median longitudinal carinae extending as usually well developed parallel or anteriorly converging ridges from base of petiolar area to anterior margin; narrow areola sometimes separated by a weak carina from basal median area; anterior transverse carina otherwise absent; posterior transverse carina distinct medially, present laterally between lateral longitudinal carina and pleural carina in one of the specimens examined. Legs with apical comb on posterior side of hind tibia short but often well developed, sometimes weak to nearly absent; hind tibial spurs long, slender (Fig. 1), longest spur often equal to half length of basitarsus; all tarsal claws apparently simple, not pectinate. Fore wing areolet usually present; stigma not exceptionally broad, with Rs+2r arising from basal 0.4-0.5. Hind wing with first abscissa of CU1 equal to or longer than 1cu-a. T1 (Fig. 4) gradually widening posteriorly; dorsal carinae very well developed basally, bordering deep basal depression of dorsal tendon attachment, and usually extending posteriorly beyond level of spiracle; dorsal-lateral carina sharp and distinct from base to apex; glymma deep, broad basally, narrowing posteriorly. S1 short, not extending to level of spiracle, 0.3-0.35 times length of T1. T2 thyridium present; laterotergites of T2 and T3 completely separated by creases. T1 and T2 mat to rugulose and coarsely punctate. Ovipositor (Fig. 7) short, straight, with deep, broad subapical, dorsal notch. Apex of female metasoma as in Fig. 7.

This description is modified from Townes (1970) and based on two species in the Texas A&M University Collection.

1. Otlophorus habitus...
2. Otlophorus face, clypeus, and mandib...
3. Otlophorus face, clypeus, and ma...
4. Otlophorus T1...
5. Otlophorus T2 ...
6.Otlophorus T2 and T3
7. Otlophorus ovipositor...
Holarctic, but nearly all of the valid species are from Europe.
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.

There are no specimens currently determined for this OTU, or those specimens determined for this OTU are not yet mappable.

This page was assembled by Bob Wharton as part of a larger collaborative effort on the genera of Ctenopelmatinae. Page last updated May, 2015.

This work would not have been possible without the groundwork provided by Ian Gauld’s study of the Australian and Costa Rican faunas, and we are particularly grateful for his assistance in many aspects of this study. We also thank David Wahl of the American Entomological Institute and Andy Bennett of the Canadian National Collection for extended loans of mesoleiines used in this study and in particular David Wahl for useful feedback throughout our study and Dmitry Kasparyan for insights on generic limits. Matt Yoder provided considerable assistance with databasing issues, and our use of PURLs (http://purl.oclc.org) in this regard follows the example of their use in publications by Norm Johnson. Heather Cummins, Andrea Walker, Patricia Mullins, Caitlin Nessner, Mika Cameron, Karl Roeder, Danielle Restuccia, and Cheryl Hyde graciously assisted us with image processing, formatting, and literature retrieval. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation’s PEET program under Grant No. DEB 0328922 and associated REU supplement nos DEB 0616851, 0723663, 0822676, 0923134, and 1026618.

This material is based upon work at Texas A&M University supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DEB 0328922 with REU supplements DEB 0616851, 0723663, 0822676, 0923134, and 1026618. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.