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1467 Hindfemur enlarged, with ventral teeth, either a few large ones or many small ones (saw-like); hindtibia subequal in length to femur and curved; specimens generally 5-15 mm, robust, rarely less tha...

1468 Prepectus apparent as a triangular plate.

1471 Inner eye margins nearly parallel; antennae inserted near middle of face; ovipositor exserted. ... Toryminae

1471 Inner eye margins diverging ventrally; antennae inserted low on face; ovipositor not exserted. ... Cleonyminae

1468 Prepectus, reduced or fused, not readily apparent, or if so, not triangular in outline.

1470 Ovipositor curved dorsally over metasoma (gaster); tegula narrowly extended forward; forewing often folded longitudinally. ... Leucospidae

1470 Ovipositor directed horizontally (in most species not extended beyond apex of metasoma (gaster)); tegula a nearly oval disc; forewing not folded longitudinally. ... Chalcididae

1472 Head not modified as "horns", essentially flat in dorsal view.

1489 Hindtibia obliquely truncate at apex; either 1 hindtibial spur or spur not apparent. ... Chalcidinae

1489 Hindtibia squarely truncate, at apex; 2 hindtibial spurs. ... Haltichellinae

1472 Head projecting as 2 "horns" (surrounding antennae) in dorsal view. ... Dirhininae

1467 Hindfemur not enlarged, ventral teeth, if present, 2 or less, or ventral edge serrate; hindtibia straight (rarely half length of femur); specimens generally 1-10 mm, robust to fragile.

1469 Antenna with 0-4 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi 3, 4, or 5-segmented; or specimens 0.2-1 or 2 mm long and these characters difficult to see (many tiny, fragile specimens key here).

1477 Generally 1 mm or less in length; body usually pale yellow to white, sometimes with dark markings or wholly dark, but not metallic; metasoma broadly joined to propodeum; postmarginal vein absent; t...

1507 Tarsi 4 or 5-segmented; setae on wings mostly absent, evenly covering wings, or with only a few bare spots or rows present; stigmal vein short and not noticeably divergent from wing margin; antenna...

1519 Propodeum with triangular median area (ma); scutellum (sc) transverse (parallel sided); axillae either united with scutellum or widely separated; club of antenna elongate and unsegmented. ... Signiphoridae

1519 Propodeum without median triangular area; scutellum (sc) not transverse (anterior, posterior sides not parallel); axillae (ax) distinct from scutellum, rarely meeting medially; club of antenna almo... ... Aphelinidae

1507 Tarsi 3-segmented; setae on wings often arranged in rows; stigmal vein usually elongate; antennae short and with few funicular segments recognizable, male with elongate antennal "setae." ... Trichogrammatidae

1477 Generally 1 mm or more in length; body often metallic or dark in color; metasoma narrowly joined at propodeum (petiole may or may not be apparent); tarsi always 4-segmented; postmarginal vein prese...

1506 Hindcoxa "normal"; posterior scutellum without overhanging triangular flap; hindtibia without irregular patters of setae. ... Eulophidae

1509 Scutellum with 2 paris of setae (rarely 3 or more); submarginal vein with 3 or more setae (rarely with 1 or 2); face usually without distinct grooves.

1511 Forewing usually evenly setose posterior to marginal vein, without row of setae; rarely with any "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal , but when present usually only 1 line.

1515 Postmarginal vein present; scutellum without submedian grooves, rarely with lateral grooves, when present at extreme lateral margins. ... Eulophinae

1515 Postmarginal vein usually absent; scutellum generally with paired submedian grooves which divide the scutellum into three distinct pieces. ... Tetrastichinae

1511 Forewing with bare area posterior to marginal vein with single row of ventral setae; usually with 2 or 3 "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal vein. ... Euderinae

1509 Scutellum with 1 pair of setae; submarginal vein with 2 setae; face usually with scrobal and facial grooves. ... Entedoninae

1506 Hindcoxa greatly enlarged; posterior scutellum (actually metanotum) with triangular, usually translucent flap overhanging propodeum; hindtibia with irregular, linear, or diamond-shaped patterns of ... ... Elasmini

1469 Antenna with 5-8 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi normally 5-segmented (if with 4, than makes of Tetracampidae, or tiny specimens with long antennae and characteristic wings, see Mymaridae ...

1476 Hindwing stalked and elongate (rarely reduced to only a short stub, hooked at tip); forewing venation linear, ending in basal 1/3 (postmarginal absent, stigmal rudimentary), or apparently absent; s...

1479 Only MT1 petiolate, often not visible and metasoma appearing broadly joined to thorax; forewing membrane smooth. Commonly collected. ... Mymaridae

1479 MT1 and MT2 petiolate; forewing reticulate. Rarely collected. ... Mymarommatidae

1476 Hindwing without stalk, expanded as shown; forewing venation ending beyond basal 1/3 (postmarginal present, stigmal elongate to sessile); specimens generally larger than 2 mm.

1478 Mesopleuron convex (bulging); midtibial spur relatively thick.

1483 Fore & midcoxae nearly touching (midcoxa anterior to middle of mesopleuron); axillae (ax) meeting medially, wider than long; marginal vein usually shorter than stigmal or postmarginal vein; cercus ... ... Encyrtidae

1483 Fore & midcoxae separated (midcoxa posterior to midpoint of mesopleuron; if questionable, than prepectus is inflated); axillae (ax) usually not meeting medially (if so, at least as long as wide); m...

1530 Notauli often meeting medially; prepectus inflated and projecting forward laterad of pronotum. ... Tanaostigmatidae

1530 Notauli rarely visible, rarely meeting; prepectus flat and not projecting forward. ... Eupelmidae

1534 With membranous area (m) anterior to midcoxal insertion.

1539 Scutum not much wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders indistinct. Pronotum usually divided medially or with longitudinal white line. Females. ... Eupelminae

1539 Scutum wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders produced. Pronotum not divided medially nor with longitudinal white line. Both sexes. ... Calosotinae

1534 Without membranous area anterior to midcoxal insertion. ... Neanastatinae

1478 Mesopleuron concave; midtibial spur thin and spinelike.

1482 Head projecting downward, female without appendage on mandible; hindtibia at least as long as femur, usually longer; male similar to female.

1485 Antennal insertion less than one torulus diameter above apical margin of clypeus; if questionable, side of head without carinae.

1487 Antennae arising slightly above margin of clypeus; MT1 (i.e., petiole) not visible. Rarely collected. (See also Asaphinae and Eunotinae: Pteromalidae). ... Ceinae

1487 Antennae arising at side and below apical margin of clypeus; MT1 longer than wide (petiolate). Commonly collected. ... Spalangiinae

1485 Antennal insertion clearly more than one torulus diameter above apical margin of clypeus; if questionable. than either eyes diverging ventrally or side of head ("cheeks") carinate.

1486 Forewing stigma not enlarged, shorter than stigmal vein (stigma sometimes surrounded by pigmented area or stain); ovipositor and antenna variable.

1491 Scutellum without submedian grooves, or if present (rarely_ than grooves do not meet notauli; notauli separated from scutellum by axilla (ax) or absent; either stigmal vein long and angled off of m...

1493 Hindcoxa nearly same size as forecoxa; if questionalbe, than notauli well developed and female ovipositor not exserted.

1495 Pronotum in dorsal view narrowed to a transverse strip, or not visible (if elongate, than narrower at base than aex and sides concave for reception of front femora (rare, some Cleonyminae)); body o...

1499 Pronotum visible in dorsal view, scutum not strongly arched; metasoma usually elongate and MT1 usually not visible (petiolate forms do occur).

1501 Metasoma with 3 or more readily visible terga; body usually elongate; head variable but generally with inconspicuous clypeus and small mandibles with 3 or 4 teeth. ... Pteromalidae

1503 Axillae not extending forward of scutellum, or if slightly advanced, not cutting a sharp angle into side lobe of scutum.

1525 Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli distant from rounded occipital margin; if questionably so, then head with curved black stout setae.

1527 Head without interantennal projection; mostly metallic or black.

1529 Head and thorax may have setae, but smaller, not stout or bristle-like; hindcoxae sculptured or smooth, without transverse carinae.

1533 Body less elongate (generally less than 1 cm); head without ridged, raised area between eye and scrobal basin. Common.

1537 Inner eye margins essentially parallel; pronotum always wider than long.

1573 Eyes not densely setose, head and thorax occationally so; scutellum rarely with paired bristles, but if so there are 3 or more pairs and they are inconspicuous.

1575 Sides of head rounded laterally. ... Pteromalinae

1575 Sides of head("cheeks") carinate laterally. ... Asaphinae

1573 Either eyes, head, and thorax densley covered with setae, or scutellum essentially polished and with only 2 pairs of bristles. Rarely collected.

1574 Eyes bare; scutellum essentially polished and with 2 pairs of prominent bristles. Although distinct from Pteromalidae, this family most readily keys here. ... Tetracampidae

1577 Scutellum with 2 pairs bristles; propodeum densely setose, setae converging toward midline; pronotum broader than long ... Tetracampinae

1577 Scutellum with 2-3 pairs bristles; propodeu bare; pronotum nearly as long as broad. ... Platynocheilinae

1574 Eye, head, and thorax densely covered with setae. ... Herbertiinae

1537 Inner eye margins divergent ventrally, parallel dorsally; pronotum often, though not always, longer than wide. ... Cleonyminae

1533 Body characteristically elongate (1-2 cm); head with ridged, raised areas between eye and scrobal basin. Extremely rare. ... Leptofoeninae

1529 Head and thorax dorsally with black, curved stout setae (bristles); hindcoxae with fine transverse carinae. ... Diparinae

1527 Head with projection between antennae, visible both from above and side (antennae not shown); non-metallic brown. ... Cerocephalinae

1525 Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli touching sharp occipital edge.

1503 Axillae (ax) advanced far forward of scutellum or cutting a sharp angle into side lobe of scutum.

1524 Axillae not enlarged, not close medially; body without white, scale-like setae.

1551 Scutellum posteriorly with triangular "projection" (actually part of the metanotum) and without parallel dorsal grooves. ... Macromesinae

1551 Scutellum posteriorly without triangular "projection" and with parallel dorsal grooves. ... Colotrechninae

1524 Axillae enlarged, nearly meeting medially; body covered with white, scale-like setae.

1501 Metasoma covered by first two terga (or may appear to be covered by single tergum); body short and squat; head well-defined clypeus and at least 1 mandible with 2 teeth. ... Perilampidae

1502 Prepectus fused to pronotum (suture absent or faintly indicated). ... Perilampinae

1502 Prepectus not fused to the pronotum (suture clearly visible). ... Chrysolampinae

1499 Pronotum not visible in dorsal view, covered by strongly arched scutum; metasoma "rudder-like," with MT1 obviously petiolate. ... Eucharitidae

1500 Prepectus not fused to pronotum, reaching tegula; flagellomere 1 reduced (ringlike). ... Oraseminae

1500 Prepectus fused to pronotum, not reaching tegula; flagellomere 1 not reduced. ... Eucharitinae

1495 Pronotum rectangular in dorsal view, about as wide as scutum, parallel-sided, and laterally flat; body black, yellow, or mixed black and yellow, but rarely metallic (and then only faintly); metasom... ... Eurytomidae

1498 Prepectus smaller then tegula.

1563 Scuellum without projection; tegula smooth. ... Rileyinae

1563 Scutellum with projection; tegula sculptured. ... Heimbrinae

1498 Prepectus (p) as large or larger then tegula (t). ... Eurytominae

1493 Hindcoxa much longer and wider than forecoxa (2-3X); if questionable, then notauli absent or weak and female with exserted ovipositor.

1494 In female, ovipositor not exserted; both sexes: metasoma with pits; propodeum posterolaterally rounded and projecting over hindcoxa (dorsal view); cerci of last tergum disk-like; prepectus much sma... ... Ormyridae

1494 In female, ovipositor strongly exserted; both sexes: metasoma without pits; propodeum posterolaterally angled and not projecting over hindcoxa (dorsal view); cerci of last tergum elongated and with... ... Toryminae

1491 Scutellum with submedian grooves that meet notauli and delimit median rectangular area (ra), or stigmal vein long and nearly at right angle to marginal vein (postmarginal may be absent); from figs ... ... Sycophaginae, Epichrysomallinae, Sycoryctinae

1486 Forewing stigma enlarged, longer than stigmal vein, and projecting toward hind margin of wing; ovipositor sheaths always exerted; antenna with 7 funicle segments. ... Megastigminae

1482 Head projecting forward, female mandible with rasplike appendage; at least hindtibia shorter than femur; male wingless (highly modified); from fruits of fig. ... Agaoninae